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HANSA 10-2020

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Schiffstechnik | Ship

Schiffstechnik | Ship Technology Large ship engines in transition Hug test facility with exhaust filter The industry of large marine engine manufacturers is pursuing a wide range of paths towards greater efficiency and sustainability. Various options were discussed at the 6 th Large Engines Conference in Rostock. A review by Hans Payer © Hug engineering Shipping has a central role in globalisation. Container-shipping in particular – from its start in the late 1960s – has been a strong facilitator for such developments as distributed manufacturing and world trade in general, helping countries in Africa, Asia or South America to evolve from poverty and gradually catch up with developed countries. To continue on this way, we cannot reduce or eliminate shipping because of environmental considerations. We have to make shipping possible also in the future by finding ways to significantly reduce or eliminate emissions. The main topics of the 6 th Rostock Conference on Large Engines (RGMT) held September 3 and 4 – in line with this objective – were alternative fuels, dual fuel combustion, the role of hydrogen, nitrogen oxide and methane emission reduction in dual fuel engines all the way to exhaust gas after-treatment resulting in near zero emissions. 21 papers were presented, three of them via video stream from as far away as Japan. Four representative papers are summarised here. Optimisation of combustion The combustion process within a diesel engine is very complex and depends on many parameters. A thorough understanding of the fuel injection, mixture formation and the ignition behaviour is a prerequisite for any optimisation process. With the aim of reducing emissions without significant sacrifices of engine efficiency, theoretical and experimental studies are going on in several industrial and university laboratories worldwide. A report on the potential reduction for nitrogen oxide and methane emissions in medium speed dual fuel engines was presented by Björn Henke from the University of Rostock. In this study experimental investigations are being carried out regarding the dual-fuel process on a medium speed single cylinder research engine with a number of injection concepts and different injection strategies. The common rail pilot injector, delivering a small amount of diesel to the combustion chamber for the ignition of the homogeneous natural gas air mixture, plays a major role in mixture formation and ignition behaviour. Parameters such as position of the injector, nozzle contour as well as the resulting combustion behaviour, including knock intensity or tendency of misfiring are being examined to find an optimal arrangement. Alternative fuels, dual fuel operations, fuel savings and minimisation of emissions were addressed in several other papers. A road-map for the transition to the IMO targets for 2050 was presented by Koji Takasaki from Kyushu University. Engine digitalisation Engine digitalisation brings many advantages and new possibilities. Marco Ferro and Marco Coppo from OMT Officine 30 HANSA – International Maritime Journal 10 | 2020

Schiffstechnik | Ship Technology © OMT Torino One topic of discussion: Smart Injectors Meccaniche Torino described their new smart injectors, enabling performance monitoring and condition-based maintenance. A piezo-electric sensor inside the smart injector collects time series of control-volume pressure during each injection, a thermocouple and a current sensor record injector temperature and injector driving current. An electronic card mounted to the injector head performs the conditioning and digitalisation of the acquired signals and transmits them via a bus driven by a hub, which also provides CAN and Ethernet interfaces for the connection to the control unit for data processing. The raw data is then processed via a mix of traditional signal processing and machine learning techniques, creating »Value Added Data, VAD«. This describes the injector performance for Bert Buchholz from University of Rostock prepared a special issue of the conference © Payer each injection cycle, such as instant control-valve opening, injection start/end or opening/closing velocity of the nozzle needle. VAD are the basis for estimating Key Performance Indicators for each injector and the whole injection system. They are displayed to the engine-room crew via a web-based dashboard and transmitted to a cloud-based storage for further analysis at OMT headquarters. The actual performance can be compared with the expected behaviour of the injector showing anomalies or long-term deviations. Exhaust gas Daniel Peitz from Hug engineering, together with VTT Finland described a development project to enable a medium speed diesel engine to run in compliance with EU Stage V emission limits, outperforming US EPA Tier 4 final marine requirements, leading to an IMO ultra-low emission vessel notation. A 2 MW Anglo Belgian Corporation ABC DZC engine on a testbed is combined with a modular Hug exhaust gas aftertreatment system including a diesel particulate filter with active regeneration and a selective catalytic reduction system with the possibility to also include an oxidation catalyst. Systematic variations of the engine with this aftertreatment-setup for different operation modes led to a robust concept to achieve emissions well below EU Stage V limits. Apart from NO x which is a function of the dosed urea solution, the cycle averaged emissions, considering ageing and regeneration factors, are only 10-36% of the respective threshold values. Compliance of a medium speed engine with the stringent EU Stage V emission limits was shown here for the first time. Conversion The three year experience with the »Wes Amelie«, a 1,036 TEU container feeder vessel, converted to LNG-operation, were described by Rainer Runde from Wessels Reeredei and Christian Hoepfner from Wessels Marine. An isolated 9% nickel LNG-Tank was placed in void spaces in the fore-ship. The engines on board from Caterpillar/MAK and MAN were converted to LNG operation without problems. The power of the main engine was reduced from 9,000 to 7,800KW, which was still enough to reach the service speed of 17 kn. Due to the higher energy content of LNG and other positive factors the annual fuel cost for the converted ship turned out to be about 30% less compared to diesel operation. The ecological effect of the conversion is considerable: Nox -85%, Sox -95%, PM -87%, CO2 -33%. The effective reduction of the greenhouse effect is however reduced only by 5% due to Methane-slip. A methane catalyser could help here, once it is available. »Dare you…?« (Greta), RGMT 2020 was all about what the maritime industry can do and what it must do to reduce its footprint. Every sector has to do what is possible. We have to find the rational balance between minimisation of emissions and economic consequences. RGMT 2020 has shown again, mankind is inventive. Inventiveness and innovation, however, need freedom. We cannot blindly phase out fossile fuels, for instance. Possibly the best solution in the future might include fossile fuels, probably optimally combined with other fuels and with effective aftertreatment. The future is hard to predict. Not only smart injection, rather complete smart propulsion systems with self-learning engines will bring many new opportunities. We shall see. n HANSA – International Maritime Journal 10 | 2020 31

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