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HANSA 09-2019

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Schiffstechnik | Ship

Schiffstechnik | Ship Technology © WinGD WinGD X-DF gas admission valve technology and advanced design of the low pressure gas inlet valves provide high combustion stability and reduced emissions with NO x emissions below IMO Tier III level in gas operation. Meanwhile, Rolls-Royce Power Systems has launched the fifth generation of the MTU S4000 with exhaust aftertreatment and a new gas version in the marine sector to meet even the most stringent exhaust regulations. In addition, a new electronic monitoring system for ships was developed together with ZF to improve availability, fuel consumption, and emissions of ships. MAN Energy Solutions is currently working on a low-pressure two-stroke gas engine to expand its dual-fuel portfolio. The machine is not yet on the market; development is scheduled to continue until 2022. However, it is also clear here where the development is heading. The low-pressure engine is to close a gap in the portfolio to the high-pressure ME- GI engine. Together with the shipbuilder DSME and HSD Engine, MAN ES is also currently working on the digitization of ship engines and auxiliary systems, the acquisition and analysis of data and their integration into intelligent ship platforms and intelligent diagnostic solutions. Wärtsilä is continuing on its path to becoming a system provider. Recently, the Finns did not talk about a new engine, but about a hybrid solution for a bulk carrier: engines, batteries, power distribution and solar cells – all combined in one system and connected via Wärtsilä HY. On the following pages HANSA as usual provides you with an overview of the marine engine market, including the familiar portfolios of the international engine makers as well as new additions and changes. fs Innovating the future. ROAD FERRY 8117 E3 The spark has been lit and the charge towards electrification has begun. The Damen E-Cross philosophy encompasses so much more than just the vessel. E-Cross represents a holistic approach covering the entire process of establishing and operating an electric ferry service, efficient, economic and clean. E-Cross is dedicated to bringing communities together safely, reliably, comfortably and with minimal impact upon our environment. DAMEN.COM 38 HANSA International Maritime Journal 09 | 2019

WOODWARD L’ORANGE Tackling the issue of methane slip There is high uncertainty which fuels will be used in the marine sector in the future. The switch from oil based fuels to gas offers a benefit in both aspects, sulphur and greenhouse gas emissions, while also being very attractive in price. Gas is almost sulphur free and the chemical structure of LNG (mostly methane, CH4) offers an inherent advantage in CO2 emissions because of the 25% lower carbon content. However, methane is one of the most important greenhouse gases with a global warming potential of GWP100 = 28 (time horizon 100 years) compared to CO2 (GWP100 = 1). Special care has to be taken to avoid methane slip in the combustion process. Typical values for methane slip are 5g/kWh for spark ignited and low pressure dual fuel engines. Gas engine concepts need to be compared not only based on CO2 but on total greenhouse gas emissions. Ignoring methane emissions would lead to a dangerously wrong choice of technology. But taking full advantage of the potential of using gas would be a huge step towards IMO 2050 targets. Most gas engines today are used for stationary power generation with mobile applications becoming more and more popular. Due to higher transient requirements, mobile applications tend to use more direct means of gas injection like multiport or direct gas injection. In on-highway applications often rich-burn (λ=1) combustion with three-way catalyst is used to reach current emission targets. Raw methane emissions, which are produced by homogeneous gas engines, are reduced by around 95%. In the marine segment, today’s gas engines use lean-burn combustion with spark or Diesel pilot ignition (low pressure dual fuel). These engines can easily comply with all of today’s emission legislation. However, lean burn engines cannot use three-way-catalysts and therefore have significant emissions of unburned methane. This originates from incomplete combustion on cold cylinder walls and combustion chamber surfaces (quenching) and from the combustion chamber crevices. Marine gas engines are often operated with dual fuel technology with injectors able to trigger precisely a small pilot injection for the gas mode, but also supplying 100% HFO in Diesel mode. Another option are GD-injectors which offer high pressure gas direct injection in combination with a Diesel pilot injection. Direct gas injection has some advantages that justify the use of the more challenging high-pressure gas technology. The gas is ignited by a self-ignited Diesel pilot and burned inhomogeneously as in typical Diesel combustion. Therefore, the gas is almost completely converted and methane slip minimized. This also eliminates knocking risk and specific cylinder powers known from today’s Diesel engines can be realized. By direct injection and without throttling, high efficiency and good transient response are achievable. Challenges for injection systems are the handling of different pressure levels on the gas side (typ. 200–500 bar) and on the liquid fuel side (typ. 600– 2.200 bar) plus the operation of the injector at different ratios between gas and liquid fuel (typ. 5–100%). One aspect is the evaluation of all sealing surfaces under different operating conditions. Another aspect is deformation of the highly complex injector geometry under operating loads. To allow the use in marine engines, Woodward L’Orange has developed a new dual fuel injector family, prepared to inject high pressure gaseous fuels as well as several low energy liquid fuels. It is designed for high speed engines and can easily be adapted to medium speed engines. Test results show that the goals concerning CH4 emissions and efficiency are reached. The methane emissions can be reduced to negligibly low values. Operating points up to mean effective pressures of 27 bar were demonstrated. Compliance with IMO III legislation (using SCR after-treatment) could be reached. This allows designing engines with power densities and dynamic performance known from today’s Diesel engines while compliance with future emission regulation, especially regarding methane slip, is achieved. The technology also seems ready to be used with other future fuels like methanol or even ammonia. n HANSA International Maritime Journal 09 | 2019 Schiffstechnik | Ship Technology Für jede Anwendung das richtige Pumpenprinzip Verdrängerpumpen von NETZSCH Für jede Anwendung gibt es ein optimales Pumpenprinzip. Deshalb bieten wir Ihnen als führender Hersteller, der drei verschiedene Pumpentechnologien anfertigt, den für Ihre individuelle Anwendung passenden Pumpentyp. NOTOS® Schraubenspindelpumpe, NEMO® Exzenterschneckenpumpe und TORNADO® T2 Drehkolbenpumpe NETZSCH Pumpen & Systeme GmbH Tel.: +49 8638 63-0 39

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