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HANSA 06-2019

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Schiffstechnik | Ship Technology High efficiency turbo-charging is one way to leverage existing opportunities bio-fuels is the availability of agricultural land, especially when global population growth is expected to increase at such a rapid pace. Moreover, the engine industry has already had false starts with palm oil and jatropha oil. Of the alternative fuels under discussion, the most exciting and possibly most feasible prospect is Power-to-Fuel/Gas. If climatic regions © MAN like Europe, which are already able to produce an excess of renewable wind and solar energy - think about the potential in tropical regions. These regions can have wind and solar energy plants fully dedicated solely on the production of hydrogen from electrolysis process. With regard to new fuels and Power-to-X technology, CIMAC emphasizes the need for cross sector cooperation. Is this concept a reality already? Tonon: The challenges are clear and substantial, essentially it is up to the engine industry to prove its case. Only by demonstrating that the strategy is viable can we ensure that the political will exists to go down the Power-to-X road and on a global scale. As stated, the engine industry is confident that its products will run on whatever new fuels emerge. The challenges are on the production side and of course, we must get the oil and gas industry onboard. There is no uncertainty in the growing commitment of the large engine industry to make Power-to-X work. What are the challenges and developments within this big picture that worry the industry right now? Tonon: Any and all of the above! But these matters are seen as incentives and challenges not issues or worries. By cooperating with legislators, the large engine industry has so far fulfilled all its emission commitments. For the engine industry the war for talents is important to win. With all the new emission targets and the rise of new fuels, there is an ocean of opportunities for new talents to join this industry sector and play an important role for the future. Every development engineer wants to dedicate their career to the further development of their product. Today, as well as their personal satisfaction, engine R&D departments – in fact, all the stakeholders in the large engine industry – have not just step changes in their sights but a glittering prize: the zero-emissions propulsion is tantalisingly close! Interview: Felix Selzer IMES Cylinder pressure sensor for highly efficient gas engine © IMES High robust sensor HRS. The special designed measuring spring enables a high thermodynamic accuracy for engine control purposes German IMES GmbH has developed a new type of very robust cylinder pressure sensor. CEO Stefan Neumann will present the high robust sensor (HRS) during this year’s CIMAC congress. »Due to the trend to higher indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) on small, medium and large gas engines with speed ranges of 100 to 1,800 rpm, the required cylinder pressure sensors are subject to increasing operating- and environmental conditions«, he says. »Thus a new era for extremely robust and high accurate cylinder pressure sensors with long-term stability has started.« A new type of sensor with front membrane and M10 or rather M14 thread has been developed. This sensor is said to be »extremely robust« and to fulfil the demand of high accuracy with low dynamic- and static zero drift. The sensor transmits the pressure via a special designed measuring spring. Areas with equal tensile- and compressive strength are created on the measuring surface, which is a part of the measuring spring. As the measuring surface is subject to deformations a resistor bridge in high temperature thin film technology is applied on it. Depending on the amount of strain a voltage signal will be measured proportional to the pressure change. Because of its particular construction the measuring spring is resistant to abnormal combustion with high pressure rise up to 1000 bar/ms and at the same time it achieves a high thermodynamic accuracy for engine control purposes. It is designed for >109 load cycles. A specially developed high temperature resistant ceramic for up to 400°C provides the basis for the electrical connection of the sensor. The resistance structure of the measuring spring and the ceramic pads are connected by wire bonding, as a result the electrical connection withstands temperatures of more than 350° C. »Thermodynamic evaluations on a single cylinder test engine in comparison to a water-cooled piezoelectric reference sensor have confirmed its accuracy. Measurements of 18 bar IMEP at 1,500 rpm have a PMI deviation of 0.5 bar in comparison to the reference«, IMES states. The performance has also been tested on dual fuel ship’s engines. Since March 2017 the sensors are installed on the Swedish asphalt carrier »BIT Viking« and also on a power barge in the Caribbean on a 6 respectively 18 cylinder Wärtsilä dual-fuel engine. The result of the evaluation after 7,000 continuous operating hours was a span error of < 0.5% in comparison to the original calibration of the sensor. n 54 HANSA International Maritime Journal 06 | 2019

Schiffstechnik | Ship Technology CIMAC WORLD CONGRESS 2019 Large engine community calls for cross-sector cooperation The IMO decision of April 2018, calling the shipping industry to decarbonise and at least halve its greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 marked a paradigm shift. Until 2023, the IMO will work out the legislative steps to pave the way for the industry to achieve its goal and enable it to invest in new, low- or zero-carbon power and propulsion systems. »If these challenges are met, we will most probably be able to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by more than 50% by 2050. If new technologies can be developed and brought onto the market in time, there is a good chance that market mechanisms will enable the fulfilment of the IMO targets. In any case, failure is not an option,« CI- MAC says. The engine makers see no »silver bullet« to meet the challenge of the IMO targets. There are some promising technical solutions, such as battery driven ships or fuel cells, but as of today, these are unable to cover the propulsion of – for instance – sea-going container vessels. Technologies such as LNG are seen as necessary and helpful, but should only be considered as bridging technologies, if fossil-fuel based. Hydrogen and carbon-neutral (bio or synthetic) fuels could be considered a solution but are currently far from being competitive. Other ideas may include innovative ship design (more efficient hulls, system integration and optimization) as well as broader digitalization (including optimization of port calls and the supply chain). CIMAC calls for a technology neutral legal framework on a global level. To support the development of technical solutions in the medium and longterm, an efficient cross sector R&D framework must be defined. There is also a need for other short-term measures that need to focus on efficiency improvements and take account of existing and close to market-ready solutions, such as LNG retrofits or system optimization. Quick fixes such as mandatory speed reductions do not incentivize technical progress, CIMAC says. They must be part of a larger toolbox, focused on the least efficient ships, and be part of a range of solutions. Power limitation may be a much more efficient way to address this issue. De-rating the engine offers the possibility of lowering the vessel’s maximum speed and thereby optimizing the actual load point with the design load point. Such a measure, based on a power limitation on the vessel, would inherently provide a speed advantage for the visit us at cimac 2019 JUNE 10-14, 2019 vancouver digital controls and softWare mechanical governors comBustion / ignition ExHAUst AFtERtreatment and turBochargers With a full range of innovative products, We are meeting your future requirements today air / exhaust floW control spare parts best performer / best design. The necessary developments require co-operation between all stakeholders, namely ship owners, shipbuilders, engine manufacturers, equipment manufacturers, system integrators and the classification societies. n COMMON-RAIL systems lp gas systems HFO COMMONrail systems pump line noZZle systems DUAL-FUEL systems more efficiency, loWer emissions HANSA International Maritime Journal 06 | 2019 55

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