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HANSA 05-2022

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Kran- und Hebetechnik | Danelec | Compit | Korrosionsschutz | HullPIC | HANSA & WISTA Germany | Norwegens Reeder und die Börse | 175 Jahre Hapag-Lloyd | MPP-Schifffahrt

SCHIFFSTECHNIK | SHIP

SCHIFFSTECHNIK | SHIP TECHNOLOGY Wind power The issues become even more complicated for wind-assisted ship propulsion (WASP) systems. For sure, they will save fuel, but business cases and energy saving metrics require quantification, again not just for a design condition, but for a realistic operational profile. Sofia Werner, Manager Strategic Research at the Swedish ship model basin SSPA gives a glimpse into the issues: »The number of [WASP] installations is predicted to increase rapidly in the coming years, and thereby the number of different technologies and makers. This development calls for standardised procedures for validation of the [WASP] performance in full scale. However, such standard procedures or guidelines are still lacking.« Her team proposes a methodology based on short sea trials, combined with CFD modelling and statistical voyage analysis. Still, business cases are by their very nature particularly difficult for WASP installations as both variations in operational speed and operational areas strongly affect the saving potential. In one DNV study for a Flettner rotor on a tanker, the range was 1.4 % to 41 %, to give an idea. This is a handicap for vendors of WASP technology, but time seems to be on their side, and increasingly a broad spectrum of operational assumptions yields acceptable business cases. Performance monitoring also gets more complicated for WASP systems. »The simpler the propulsion system on a vessel, the easier it is to obtain reliable results quickly. However, vessels will become more complex, [e.g.] harvesting energy from the environment,« says Falko Fritz of Skysails Marine Performance, based on his experience both with kites and performance monitoring. One of the issues here is that standard performance monitoring based on ISO 19030 filters out data sets above Beaufort 4, as wind speeds and resulting forces are afflicted by high uncertainties. But it is for these higher wind speeds where WASP systems harvest the most savings. Faster and better monitoring Much of the discussion at HullPIC in May is expected to be on the CII. All details for the CII calculation (including details of interpretation by authorities) are not yet on the table, but a sometimesheated discussion has already started. The CII will be assessed on a yearly basis, but this may just be too slow in some cases to address corrective measures, for example in hull management. We need faster and better monitoring with early warnings allowing timely response, linking state-of-the-art performance monitoring to CII energy efficiency rating. Charter party contracts are likely to require a minimum C rating both at start and end of the charter duration. In any case, the traditional charter party contracts need updating in light of the coming CII scenarios. Adaption of charter parties IMO makes the owners responsible for the CII grades achieved, but the charterers make the operational decisions that ultimately decide the CII. This »whipping boy« scenario can only be managed by adapting the charter party contracts to align responsibilities and operational decisions. That we will see such changes is certain, how exactly we will draft and live such future contracts, we will see. It is safe to say that discussions will continue well beyond 2023, and performance monitoring schemes will increase in importance, before finally coming to come to a shared, transparent and objective view of a ship’s performance. EEXI and CII pose new challenges and hurdles for the shipping industry. Most stakeholders work hard together to get fit for the future to take these hurdles. But at the same time, another discussion is starting on whether it wouldn’t be possible to take an easier route, trying to find some loopholes. It lies in the nature of new, major regulations that there are teething problems that were not foreseen when drafting them, but now stir up the industry where some shout »foul« and Carsten Most Tel. 040/72003-120 | E-Mail: carsten.most@akzonobel.com 64 HANSA – International Maritime Journal 05 | 2022

SCHIFFSTECHNIK | SHIP TECHNOLOGY One of the latest innovations in the coating industry: The Hullskater from Jotun others shout »just clever«. Exploiting loopholes may not be fair, but it is legal and human. It is up to the regulators to identify loopholes and close them by updating regulations and interpretation guidelines. Stricter ship type definitions For example, the EEXI like the EEDI is ship type specific. That makes sense. Containership are slender and operate at higher speeds, bulk carriers are bulky and operate at lower speeds. Let’s compare apples with apples, and pears with pears, thought the authors of IMO’s EEDI/EEXI regulations, using different baselines for required values for a given ship size. But what if you transported some containers on a bulk carrier and then submitted this ship as »containership«? This loophole can be closed by adding stricter definitions of the criteria for assigning »ship type« baselines to a specific ship, based on design and cargo records. © Jotun Or one can seek to exploit leeway in measuring and calculation procedures. For example, there is the discussion on the weather factor in the computation of the EEDI. The basic intent of the weather factor is good, reflecting that ships usually operate not in sea trial conditions with calm weather, and that ships with lower energy requirements in realistic ambient conditions should be rewarded with a better energy efficiency index. The problem lies in the uncertainties in determining the speed loss in waves and the flexibility given in the regulations. Deliberately choosing assessment tool and calculation parameters in one’s favour could be used to improve the energy efficiency index on paper without corresponding improvement in real energy efficiency of the ship. Let’s be realistic Shortcomings in details are not justification to reject IMO’s efforts to decarbonize shipping. Teething problems are normal. Awareness and open discussion allow timely responses to existing loopholes. The current state of energy efficiency assessment and monitoring is not perfect, but we have come a long way in the last seven years, when HullPIC started to bring together technology providers and users, and new challenges rather seem to fuel the dynamics in the community. Wegweisende Innovation durch Hinterschiffsoptimierung »AFT OPT« LR-Shipdesign AG setzt mit mehr als 6% Treibstoffeinsparung wegweisende Impulse in Bezug auf Hydrodynamik, Hydromechanik und Propulsion bei Schiffsneubauten. Ausgewählte Klassifikationsgesellschaften und Flaggenstaaten sind aktuell an der weiteren Validierung der Technologie und Modellversuchen in der HSVA beteiligt. Mit Fokus auf die Reduzierung der Treibstoffkosten und des Schadstoffausstoßes ist die LR-Shipdesign AG als progressives Unternehmen auf die Hull-Opschlupf verbessern die Kavitationsneigung des Propellers bei gleichzeitig hö- allem in der 12-Uhr-Position gefüllt. Reduktion von Sogziffer und Propellertimierung spezialisiert. Mit eigener CFD-Analytik und dem Schiffskörper angepasster »AFTship OPTimtization« wird ein neuer Meilenstein auf dem Weg Zu den positiven Synergien der AFTship OPTimierung gehören auch die Verherer Leistungsentfaltung. zu besserer Energieeffizienz erreicht. ringerung des Schadstoffausstoßes, Reduzierung von Vibrationen und Lärmemissionen. Frühere Prüfungen in der SVA Wien haben das Zusatzpotenzial 23.000 TEU Containerschiffe können deutlich mehr als 2 Millionen USD/Jahr alleine an direkten Treibstoffkosten einsparen, Panamax-Bulker oder 80k dwt von AFT OPT gegenüber dem »besten Design« bestätigt. Tanker über 400.000 USD/Jahr bei gleichzeitiger Erfüllung von EEDI-3 und bestem CII-Rating. an Nachhaltigkeit interessierten Reedern diskutiert. Aktuell werden bereits konkrete Schiffsneubauvorhaben mit innovativen und Eigene AFT-OPT-Algorithmen verbessern die Hydrodynamik und die Propulsion entscheidend. Der Propeller wird signifikant besser HANSA angeströmt – International und vor Maritime LR-Shipdesign Journal 05 AG: | 2022 Weiterführende Informationen und Kontaktdaten finden Sie auf der Website der www.lr-ship-design.com 65 © LR-Shipdesign AG, Zug/Schweiz (2022)

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