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HANSA 05-2018

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Survey 2018: Ruderpropeller & Pods | Appification & Virtual Reality | Terminalbetreiber | Köhlbrand | Griechenland | Bulk & Stahl | Sonderheft BREAKBULK EUROPE 2018 

Schiffstechnik | Ship

Schiffstechnik | Ship Technology What good is Virtual Reality? While Virtual Reality (VR) has progressed from vision to industry reality, it has fallen short of expectations. Does the fun of video gaming translate into better training results? The state of the art in VR applications for maritime training resembles a slightly out-of-date video game: you can navigate through a 3D model, with some added buttons to do this or that; you may have stereoscopic (3D) vision; you may have sound effects; very rarely you may have »multiple player« capabilities. Increased reality (level of detail, stereoscopic view, lighting effects) and model size come at a price. The main cost factor is the creation of a tailored virtual world. Many 3D models can be found for free on the internet, but specific models and elements require (sometimes prohibitively expensive) work to create. Nautical simulators generate increasingly realistic visual effects of the maritime environment and mimic the maneuvering physics of own ship and encountered ships. Simulators range from small desktop to large full-mission solutions. Commercial training facilities use 2D displays and are far less photorealistic than state-of-the-art video games. A very realistic portrait of the outside world is apparently not required to meet the training needs. FORCE Technology mentions four vital ingredients for their simulation-based training: (1) models of ships and shipping areas (= 3D worlds and maneuvering models for each ship), (2) the simulator (the display and interaction option), (3) experienced instructors (!), and (4) pedagogical training methods and insights (!). Take-home message: A video game playing a captain with Oculus Rift vision is much simpler than having a simulation-based training facility. Simulators for navy/combat training applications have more interaction functionality and better visuals. IBR Sistemi offers such a solution employing VR technology. »The scenario can be displayed on unlimited multiple screens/360° projections or through special stereoscopic displays and head mounted displays.« The photorealistic visuals rival state-of-the-art video games. The solution is rather sophisticated, with many ships, equipment systems, geographical areas, etc. in the database. New set of competences needed Ship surveys are another good case for using VR in training. DNV GL has developed SuSi (Survey Simulator). SuSi supports realistic and cost-efficient 3D training for survey inspections, using detailed models of ships and offshore structures. The virtual inspection gets trainees exposed to deficiencies that would take years for a surveyor to experience in real life. The experience so far is based on blended learning, where classical classroom training covers e.g. regulations, inspection techniques or frequently found deficiencies on ships, before a virtual ship inspection starts. The initial vision in 2010 had been that SuSi would revolutionize the way we conduct (surveyor) training, but adoption has been slower than originally envisioned – mainly because trainers need to fulfill many competence requirements: surveyor experience, pedagogical skills, course content familiarity and SuSi operating competence. For the same reasons, potential new en- Photo: MacGregor 82 HANSA International Maritime Journal – 155. Jahrgang – 2018 – Nr. 5

Schiffstechnik | Ship Technology tries offering comparable solutions face significant hurdles. The combination of software, sophisticated scenarios, pedagogical solution and trainer competence requires significant effort to copy. KRS has developed its own VR-based ship survey simulator to train ship surveyors on classification rules and inspection procedures. The 3D stereoscopic images are combined with physics engines to recreate scenarios such as drops or collisions. The player has elementary functions such as ladder climbing, photographing and hand lighting, elements also found in SuSi. Multi-player functionality allows training with several roles, e.g. for on-board emergency situations required by the ISM Code. Useful for high-risk scenarios For ship familiarization, the NRL developed a software solution for the U.S. Navy, combining VR with a knowledge-based route planner and speech control. Users can walk through portions of a ship and ask questions about compartment names, numbers and locations. More recently, BMT developed a training system for the Royal Navy. For their new aircraft carriers, support personnel must be safe working onboard and this requires training, best delivered employing a 3D walkthrough with interactive functionality based on a game-based simulation engine (augmenting classroom training). Despite the high-quality graphics, the system is pedagogy driven and not technology driven: The training system is designed around the needs of the trainee and the desired outcome, rather than just developing the highest fidelity system just for the sake of it. Only a small part of the ship was developed for 3D viewing, to be used at public relations and outreach events. Takehome message: 3D vision is not necessary for most training applications. VR based training makes a lot of sense for high-risk scenarios. Two decades ago, the NRL investigated already employing VR to improve performance of firefighters. VSTEP offers VR based training for emergency response, e.g. fire-fighting, both for land-based applications and for ships (three different ships were modelled). The training is designed to be part of STCW requirements with blended learning combining classroom elements and supervised simulations. MacGregor/Cargotec developed a training center, where trainees operate cargo-handling equipment using stereoscopic vision. The intention is to reduce the likelihood injury to personnel or damage to equipment because operators have already tried and tested it in the virtual world. Several applications for familiarization with safety procedures have been developed for crews of offshore oil & gas platforms. Intergraph joined forces with gaming specialist Samahnzi to develop such a training solution using elements of video gaming. »Players« (= trainees) embraced this solution, but most likely the project received subsidies to match development costs and price expectations of the customer. Reported improved training results are probably due to stronger involvement and interest in the offered information. Similar applications are reported by the Institute of Technical Education (ITE) in Singapore. The hardware park at ITE seems to be impressive, as they offer group training using holograms and CAVE-like environments with data gloves, motion tracking, etc. Takehome message: For safety training, VR may offer convincing business cases and more effective training. Virtual Reality is always fun, but only relatively few convincing business cases or financially sustainable applications in the maritime world can be found. Stereoscopic vision and photorealism are nice to have, but not needed for most purposes. The high costs for VR based training limit applications. Business cases appear usually when large assets or human health/life is at risk in real-world training. And in some cases, the fun of video gaming does not translate into better training results; the more trainees immerse in a virtual world, the more they leave the real world. Trainees may then no longer be aware of trainers or fellow trainees with detrimental effects for learning. Authors: Volker Bertram, Tracy Plowman, DNV GL, FILTRATION UND SEPARATION MIT SYSTEM Filtration Group ist Ihr kompetenter Systempartner für leistungsfähige und effiziente Filtrations- und Separationssysteme sowie -komponenten in der Schiffsbetriebstechnik. KONTAKT SMM Halle A1 Stand 525 Filtration Group GmbH (ehemals MAHLE Industrial Filtration GmbH) Tarpenring 31 22419 Hamburg Telefon: + 49 40 530040-0 Fax: + 49 40 530040-24191 Email: Website: HANSA International Maritime Journal – 155. Jahrgang – 2018 – Nr. 5 83

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