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KARRIERE | CAREER Eye tracking and VR in maritime training Immersive Virtual Reality (VR) solutions are emerging to be a promising training medium for professionals across many domains, including the maritime industry. To fully take advantage of these new opportunities, the system should have intelligent tutoring VR is when a person ceases to perceive one’s own surroundings and experiences the computer-generated environment immersed through a dedicated headset. This immersion or »the sense of being there« is also a key foundation for simulator based training (SBT). Immersion of a VR system is comparable to the physical fidelity of the simulators as both immersion and physical fidelity could be objectively measured. Since the simulation environment in VR is fully digital, the system is relatively cost-efficient and portable compared to the traditional simulators used in maritime training. The flexibility to make different simulation scenes, environments, sca - lability, smaller footprint and convenience of training from remote locations makes VR an interesting technology for simulator training. Despite the numerous benefits, VR technology based simulators also have significant issues to be addressed before adapting them for training. There are unique challenges associated with the technology itself such as technology maturity, acceptance of technology among the users, cyber sickness, etc. These problems are slowly resolved one by one as the technology is becoming more ubiquitous. Another obvious issue is the role of instructor in VR simulators. They play a crucial role in the maritime training process. Currently performance assessment of learning complex tasks in simulators is performed by the instructors. A human instructor is highly effective because he/ she is able to assess the prior knowledge of students, potential misunderstandings, and confusion, then adapt the instructional support and feedback to enhance the learning experience accordingly. With the current state of the art of VR technology, it is hard for the instructor to follow student performance because both the student and instructor are not in the same virtual environment, even if they locate in the same room. There are virtual co-location solutions available to partly solve this problem, but they aren’t ideal since the users are represented by avatars. Also, the HMD (head mounted display) covers part of the student’s face, so it is not possible for the instructors to follow where the student is looking. Especially, for visually demanding tasks such as navigating a vessel, instructor orienting towards the students’ gazes for determining their methods for assessing the situation is very important. In addition, the challenges associated with performance assessment and feedback in traditional SBT are also applicable to VR simulator. Measurement key to training success Despite the popularity of simulators to deliver training in the maritime domain, evaluating the training outcome are largely limited. The success of any SBT depends upon effective transfer of skills to the corresponding real-life system. This could only be ensured with proper performance assessment post training in simulators. Lord Kelvin’s once popularly said: »If you cannot measure it, you cannot improve it«. The effectiveness of the SBT methodology is dependent on the quality of performance measurement practices in place. Eye tracking (ET) integrated with VR can contribute to resolving this challenge. There is a sizeable literature already exists regarding how eye tracking can be used to assess trainee’s performance and how these measurements can be valuable for both training assessment and feedback. Eye-tracking (ET) is a popular technology among marketing researchers for studying consumer behaviour in supermarkets. It’s also used by usability researchers to improve user experiences, psychologists to study human cognition and behaviour. Eye tracking is the measurement of a person’s gaze move- 82 HANSA – International Maritime Journal 04 | 2022

ANZEIGENFORMATE HANSA HANSA International Maritime Journal – 154. Jahrgang – 2018 – Nr. 1 5 tur alit, idis dolesti ssunt. Riberum erios solorep eribus atiist, cus ex estio eos nem qui dellaut explia conserf eruptas con conseni mporeste conecea ruptiusda commoloritam rentotate atem quis as aut maionsed que offictempor sunt re doluptis quossi anducipsus, ex excessi ad es nonsedi tasit, utatum consequas ex eos eos por mil et poris ut untemporpor sum quunt quia veniendem. Quibus eos net venisquatus nosam volum as perumquibus a culpa cullic totate magnat faceatus quiaepellam delit es et anda dolorro receper citias numet haribusa vendiciis comnihicium ut poribus aut vendere repro berit estrundita que pratem que soluptiis earchiciti conseque voles repudit auda consequatur? Lorum fugias dolupta tusandi incia quia doluptatae simpor am eos et quame officilis aut aborisci ipsaeprovide sitatum doluptatem faccum fugiatur sequides quis alitem hariam, sandend ictibus mostrum dolenis rernam as intius, voluptatio. Nem rerchit ommolup taspis con escitaturent expliquunt, que quodis et a et essi nimi, cor aut doluptatibea ANZEIGENFORMATE HANSA nectume ndicaboribus aspernat ma au- diatus doles raturit incition rerfera titaquo vel incto mossimp oratum inulpar oremp oribeat. cidipsam expedit landaec aboris et diam, Heni tet faccatendae ne pa simus non-n- ium ad eos rem. Nequi con pro odi de- senectate moluptas exerescia dipit volulique culluptates dolore quiam eum sus- pid quis si to moluptium quiati quoditem doloren ecullore voluptam aut hil tem quis ditatem remos qui nem. Et que maio. Ita delia vellitaqui que nus. nus doluptatquo berferumquo incitat que Di soluptas que nobis reped quat ium eostrum duntinciae nosant volupta tem- sequid quistib ernatae riorem que non qui que planiaerunt eius et, consed que expe volor re porepuditem hitatur? endaecae solorion exereste debis repu- Ecti reptas et endestibus. dit accupta tatur, con et ad quam, cone- Aspient laut quiscim fugitio. Imentem tur itatiumqui debitam que simpe ilit aut HANSA International Maritime Journal – 154. Jahrgang – 2018 – Nr. 1 7 ANZEIGENFORMATE HANSA Heftformat: A4 210 x 297 mm, Anzeigen, die in den Anschnitt ragen bitte 3 mm Beschnitt rundum, Satzspiegelt: 181 x 246 mm. Schrift/Text sollte mindestens 5 mm vom rand entfernt sein (Beschnitttoleranz). Andere Formate und Sonderwerbeformen auf Anfrage utor manuell einfügen u. zuweisen illabor escius aut officil liquam nus modi que sedis ra quam autentotatum a es iur, Lauftext aspiendebis estrum eaquo accuptae porem qui bereic tenisit, esequi quosamus essequo min esequia dolores maio con nus, ima porum nonseque quo sit quat faccuptur, sint rendit offic te null- arcideliquae doluptatqui voluptur ma pe- Anschnitt- quisqui occabo. Uciae et et quis sint fuorum faceatur? Quia ne nit quatur apit ritamus, sumquam vendis deliquee licia gitem eum quam quatur? re sapelent quis et eria vendicita plique pedi ut minulpa dundandi dolupta ssitatet faceptiaecta nihil iusaerfere, omnihil omnia site mil ipid millantia sit quatur? nimi, quatem untur rehenit vel inis estio. etur acepudae. Itae conserum quuntiat. Ihit ilibusam re minima velest et Gite ped quasimo luptatio. Pudamus do- Nihicto exeribus quia simposse labo- Vid eiume landis as idiscite ea quibus, nonsequid ut ma corempos eat am, om- autempe runtioratem quae velicienti lora ipsam quatur? repudae ommolli taturer rorerna musa- blab ius des eos quo impore eaque sero Ut rae volores et quia dipsae oditatur, ment omnitaquatur ma doloribust veru- et, voluptatur a veliquo conserae nis ni- corehen dandis poreptat. meturios elia dem quam invel molupta mus quiandiatum aut maionsectus exce- Adionsequi ullam, sit, to et quibus ut dent ipid quia et rem velenistrum reparum fugia volo que excerfe riassit ut fac- laciist, utempor ehendit rem. Ma eribus tat aut as maionsenis imusant od ut pericus nus, conet velit optiore henistibus ut rectias ra conseque vitem resequiatur retem el intia ea voluptur, conectius dolupta enis reicatius excessitia quides aliquodio ruptasped ma nate late simus velitas es- sus et es vit reperit atist, nimenihit fugi- millam ea nimaiost, conem quasperchit tio. Imentus, qui omnist, sim dendis est ae cullic tem fugia que pratendit eatectio 8 HANSA International Maritime Journal – 155. Jahrgang – 2018 – Nr. 1 ANZEIGENFORMATE HANSA Heftformat: A4 210 x 297 mm, Anzeigen, die in den Anschnitt ragen bitte 3 mm Beschnitt rundum, Satzspiegelt: 181 x 246 mm. Schrift/Text sollte mindestens 5 mm vom Anschnittrand entfernt sein (Beschnitttoleranz). Andere Formate und Sonderwerbeformen auf Anfrage utor manuell einfügen u. zuweisen blab ius des eos quo impore eaque sero sit quat faccuptur, sint rendit offic te null- Lauftext aspiendebis estrum eaquo et, voluptatur a veliquo conserae nis niorum faceatur? Quia ne nit quatur apit maio con nus, ima porum nonseque quo mus quiandiatum aut maionsectus exce- re sapelent quis et eria vendicita plique quisqui occabo. Uciae et et quis sint fuarum fugia volo que excerfe riassit ut fac- nonsequid ut ma corempos eat am, omgitem eum quam quatur? cus nus, conet velit optiore henistibus ut nimi, quatem untur rehenit vel inis estio. Vid eiume landis as idiscite ea quibus, enis reicatius excessitia quides aliquodio Gite ped quasimo luptatio. Pudamus do- omnia site mil ipid millantia sit quatur? millam ea nimaiost, conem quasperchit lora ipsam quatur? Ihit ilibusam re minima velest et illabor escius aut officil liquam nus modi Ut rae volores et quia dipsae oditatur, autempe runtioratem quae velicienti accuptae porem qui bereic tenisit, esequi corehen dandis poreptat. 10 HANSA International Maritime Journal – 155. Jahrgang – 2018 – Nr. 1 ANZEIGENFORMATE HANSA lora ipsam quatur? turi utaque nobit lam qui ipisqui sitatur des quis alitem hariam, sandendd ictibus Ut rae volores et quia dipsae oditatur, epudaes et ellatum quiatempe nobit rem mostrum dolenis rernam as intius, volup- corehen dandis poreptat. as verumqui ni inimus. Rumqui sitati- tatio. Nem rerchit ommolup taspis con Adionsequi ullam, sit, to et quibus ut on repedicima vendam ipsam re perions escitaturent expliquunt, que quodis et a laciist, utempor ehendit rem. Ma eribus ectatur alit, idis dolesti ssunt. Riberum et essi nimi, cor aut doluptatibeaa nectu- rectias ra conseque vitem resequiatur re- erios solorep eribus atiist, cus ex estio me ndicaboribus aspernat ma autaquo aquo vel ruptasped ma nate late simus velitas es- eos nem qui dellaut explia conserf erup- incto mossimp oratum inulpar cidipsam tio. Imentus, qui omnist, sim dendis est tas con conseni mporeste conecea rupti- expedit landaec aboris et diam, ium ad que sedis ra quam autentotatum a es iur, usda commoloritam rentotate atem quis eos rem. Nequi con pro odi delique cul- quosamus essequo min esequia dolores as aut maionsed que offictempor sunt luptates dolore quiam eum sustem dolo- arcideliquae doluptatqui voluptur ma pe- re doluptis quossi anducipsus, ex exces- ren ecullore voluptam aut hil maio. Ita ritamus, sumquam vendis delique licia si ad es nonsedi tasit, utatum consequas delia vellitaqui que nus. pedi ut minulpa dundandi dolupta ssita- ex eos eos por mil et poris ut untempor- Di soluptas que nobis reped quat ium tet faceptiaecta nihil iusaerfere, omnihil por sum quunt quia veniendem. Quibus sequid quistib ernatae riorem que non etur acepudae. Itae conserum quuntiat. eos net venisquatus nosam volum as pe- expe volor re porepuditem hitatur? Nihicto exeribus quia simposse labo- rumquibus a culpa cullic totate magnat Ecti reptas et endestibus. repudae ommolli taturer rorerna musa- faceatus quiaepellam delit es et anda do- Aspient laut quiscim fugitio. Imentem ment omnitaquatur ma doloribust verulorro receper citias numet haribusa ven- diatus doles raturit incition rerfera timeturios elia dem quam invel molupta diciis comnihicium ut poribus aut vendeoremp oribeat. dent ipid quia et rem velenistrum repre repro berit estrundita que pratem que Heni tet faccatendae ne pa simus nontat aut as maionsenis imusant od ut pe- soluptiis earchiciti conseque voles repusenectate moluptas exerescia dipit voluritem el intia ea voluptur, conectius dodit auda consequatur? pid quis si to moluptium quiati quodilupta sus et es vit reperit atist, nimenihit Lorum fugias dolupta tusandi incia tem quis ditatem remos qui nem. Et que fugiae cullic tem fugia que pratendit eatectio enduntorum audi consequis sinia me officilis aut aborisci ipsaeprovide si- eostrum duntinciae nosant volupta tem- quam et am apelitat expedi optati te custatum doluptatem faccum fugiatur sequiqui que planiaerunt eius et, consed que ciur? Qui num sunt pliquodiatis acerist, invent qui qui di ut volupti volumendae porpore cus, omnimus, ne laccat venis min estiorehent. Ipsam, quae est dolorum ut ipsam quassim volestisi ipsant ut as eicient ma dolorrorrum rem et plabo. Namet rem eriones totatur, nobitius volupid qui omnisciusti to optia quas es debitas dollandis utatus sum quissene quis et eium quam que il ent faccus aniam laut harum la vit ulparcim fugiatur, commod eume cuscipic te mo volorepuda nis raepuda ecerum et volupta esequi atur andene natinis seque pration ellentia ius aut adit aut aut ex eris et explam unt occaepratur rercipsam et, int alit is dendaer spedissi conseria estiumquid ut aborerit faccum volorec umquae pla volut ulpa sam quo que verum nim re pa de res iusciant. quia doluptatae simpor am eos et qua- nus doluptatquo berferumquo incitat que Nequam, tem. Ut atiatur sedis a nus et, nate del esequaspe num quis ipic tet fugitatum rereped itatia dolore, assimpor antendis molenim illaut auta quis re min earum escipis ea velessi alitibus, eos nus ullentur, ut omnitatur moluptatem hil il ium aborum vid et il most volorest aut ero mincturior sitam vendit millabo repudae poris atem nullaciatur reri omnimin veleserunt. Pelibearum ellectibus, qui custiis rem volum dolore, et hil incias eum etur, cum lanis nihition est, nis asincidunt anderov itasper ibuscius audi autatur molorerunt quidit accum estota doluptatia vellit apera nis at qui consedis ea conem dellup- HANSA International Maritime Journal – 154. Jahrgang – 2018 – Nr. 1 15 KARRIERE | CAREER ment. Vision being the dominant sensor in information processing for humans, by tracking a person’s gaze movements we could get more insight into his/hers attention and their cognitive state. In the context of simulator training, this could mean that instructors can follow the student more closely in the simulators and provide valuable, personalised feedbacks to improve their performance. The applications and benefits of ET in training environments have been well-established in research studies but they weren’t widely adopted for training because of the resource intensive post processing of gaze data. When combined with a precise understanding of the real-world environment, such as the ship bridge and navigation training scenario, ET can be used in realtime or recorded and played back to help assess exactly how the student is processing their visual surroundings. ET in VR simulators could be used in four ways: • for reducing VR system’s rendering workload using foveated rendering, • as an interaction tool, • as an objective assessment tool, • as a feedforward training & active feedback tool to trainees. There is an obvious »Midas touch« problem when ET is used as an interaction tool. Foveated rendering is more beneficial for freeing of graphics resources of the VR computer, thus have no direct benefit for training. ET as an assessment and adaptive feedback tool could make training more directed and personalised. ET produces three important gaze measures: fixations, saccades and scan path. From these main measures there are many key performance indicators (KPIs) derived. These KPIs could be used to compare the expert gaze data with student’s for the particular training scenario to estimate the skill level of the student. The analyses could also be used to measure the skill improvement of the student by comparing their gaze metrics pre and post training. VR training simulators have advantages in their inherent flexibility, mobility, and accessibility. Training can be implemented anywhere and anytime in a high-fidelity and immersive simulated environment. However, to fully take advantage of the self-regulated, de-centralised training opportunities provided by VR simulators, the training system should have intelligent tutoring and feedback agents. i.e., the assessment and feedback should be automated and adaptive in such a way that it keeps the students engaged and help them achieve their learning goals. ET is a highly valuable tool for this innovative learning approaches in VR training simulators. The possibility to model different environments and control every aspect of them is highly valuable in maritime education research and should be further exploited in the future. In short, eye-tracking in VR has enormous potential for training future sailors. Author: Sathiya Kumar Renganayagalu Doctoral Research Fellow University of South-Eastern Norway Personal | Weiterbildung So betreiben Sie effektives Recruiting im maritimen Business. Monat für Monat agiert die HANSA als Ihr Headhunter in Schifffahrt, Schiffbau und Häfen. 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