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HANSA 03-2017

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Schiffstechnik | Ship

Schiffstechnik | Ship Technology Source: Matson One of the most important projects is the newbuilding series for Matson recently delivered vessels. Customer Great Lakes Dredge & Dock (GLDD), a leader in harbor deepening/maintenance and beach nourishment projects, will be taking delivery of a trailing suction hopper dredge »Ellis Island«, fashioned as an articulated tug barge, in Spring 2017. The yard is also building a smaller capacity, Trailing Suction Hopper Dredger with 8,550 cubic yard hold space, to be called »Magdalen«, for Weeks Marine. Like other yards in the region, it builds for the offshore oil industry. Two Inspection, Maintenance and Repair vessels are under construction for Harvey Gulf Marine. In addition, the yard continues to build inland river tugs for privately held Florida Marine Transporters (moving oil and products particularly on the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway) and has completed a four vessel order for inland river tugs for customer Impala Terminals Colombia. Eastern is also set to build a trio of 4,500 passenger boats for the Staten Island Ferry in New York City. Harvey Gulf, mentioned above, has made a groundbreaking commitment to LNG fuelling; it is building a series of six dual fueled 302’ OSVs at the Gulf Coast Ship yard, which it acquired in mid-2015. Three vessels have already been delivered while another three will go into service during 2017 and early 2018. LNG also plays a role in the activities of Conrad Shipyard, another large U.S. Gulf builder and repairer. The yard, active in building tank barges, dry barges and tugs (for Florida Marine and many others), will soon be delivering an LNG bunker barge that will serve the TOTE containership newbuilds mentioned above. In late 2016, the Conrad yard announced the formation of an LNG business unit. VT Halter Marine, with a group of facilities located in Pascagoula, Mississippi, describes itself as »… the largest designer and builder of small to medium sized ocean-going vessels in the United States.« The yard handles both military and commercial jobs; recent projects include a series of ATBs for Bouchard Transportation’s coastwise refined products business. Bollinger Shipyards maintains multiple facilities throughout Louisiana, performing new construction and repair, for both commercial and government customers. Recent deliveries have included a series of Fast Response Cutters for the U.S. Coast Guard, but also towboats for work on the inland waterways. Versatility is paramount; constructors of small vessels such as Horizon Shipbuilding or Metal Shark may find themselves building ferries (in this case, for New York City) when not building towboats for Florida Marine, or fast response boats for the Coast Guard or local fire departments. In the Pacific Northwest, Vigor Industrial, a powerhouse which has grown through multiple acquisitions of smaller yards, has recently delivered Articulated Tug Barges (ATBs) for Harley Marine, as well as large passenger vessels for Washington State Ferries. It continues to be active in response boats and small cutters. Its recent customers have included the Harbor Patrol of the New York Police Department and the Fire Department in Portland, Oregon. In the Great Lakes region, Bay Shipbuilding (a part of Fincantieri), in Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin builds for both government and commercial customers, having delivered an ATB (6,000 horsepower tug and 155,000 barrel barge) for Kirby Corporation’s fuel barging business in November, 2016; a sister pair will be delivered in Summer, 2017. M The U.S. Navy is important for the shipyard industry, too. NASSCO was awarded to build a »Transfer Dock/Expeditionary Sea Base« Photo: NASSCO 66 HANSA International Maritime Journal – 154. Jahrgang – 2017 – Nr. 3

Schiffstechnik | Ship Technology Fuel cells – power source of the future? In the search for low emissions technologies the European Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA) now has assessed the use of fuel cells in shipping. Technological maturity has to develop further, but revisions of regulation are already underway – a promising signal As part of EMSA’s role in supporting EU Member States and the European Commission to find solutions for sustainable shipping, the agency looked at technology, regulations and safety of different types of fuel cell systems together with classification society DNV GL. A main motivation was EMSA’s view that fuel cells in particular have been receiving increased interest as an alternative power supply for ships (see also page 42). A fuel cell power pack consists of a fuel and gas processing system and a stack of fuel cells that convert the chemical energy of the fuel to electric power through electrochemical reactions. The process can be described similar to that of a battery, with electro-chemical reactions at the interface between the anode or cathode and the electrolyte membrane, but with continuous fuel and air supplies. Different fuel cell types are available, and can be characterized by the materials used in the membrane. For the study the technologies were ranked against parameters: relative cost, power levels, lifetime, tolerance for cycling, flexibility towards type of fuel, technological maturity, physical size, sensitivity for fuel impurities, emissions, safety and effciency. The three technologies ranked to be the most promising for marine use is the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and the high temperature PEMFC. According to the findings the PEM fuel cell is a mature technology, successfully used both in marine applications. The relative maturity also leads to a relatively low cost. The operation requires pure hydrogen, and the operating temperature is low. The main safety aspects are thus related to the use and storage of hydrogen on a vessel. Energy conversion with a PEM fuel cell, from hydrogen to electricity, results in water as the only emission and low quality heat, with the low temperature providing high tolerance for cycling operation. The effciency is moderate, 50-60%. The modules currently have a size of up to 120 kW, and the physical size is small, which is positive for applications in transport, remarkably for marine use. The major drawback of the PEMFC technology is its sensitivity to impurities in the hydrogen, complex water management and a moderate lifetime. The HT-PEMFC is less mature than low temperature PEM, addressing however some of the problems of the PEM. The higher temperature reduces the sensitivity towards impurities and simplifies the water management since water is only present in gaseous phase. Photo: eShips The effciency is the same as for traditional PEMFCs, possibly higher due to less parasitic losses, and the higher temperature leads to more excess heat that can be used for ship internal heating purposes. The higher operating temperature allows eliminating a clean-up reactor after the reformer, which improves effciency and saves costs. Owing to the tolerance for fuel impurities, simpler, lighter and cheaper reformers can be used to produce hydrogen from a range of energy-carriers such as LNG, methanol, ethanol or oil based fuels. The SOFC is a highly effcient, moderately sized fuel cell. With heat recovery the total fuel effciency can reach about 85% to date. The fuel cell is flexible towards different fuels, with the reforming from hydrocarbons to hydrogen taking place internally in the cell. The high temperature can be considered a safety concern and when using hydrocarbon fuels, there will be emissions of CO2 and NO x . A promising development for the SOFC technology are hybrid systems combining SOFC, heat recovery and batteries. Maritime applications of fuel cell systems must satisfy requirements for onboard energy generation systems and fuel-specific requirements regarding the arrangement and design of the fuel handling components, piping, materials and storage. The International Code of Safety for Ships using Gases or other Low-Flash- Point Fuels (IGF Code) provides requirements for ships using such fuels. Presently, it only contains detail requirements for natural gas as fuel, and only for use in internal combustion engines, boilers and gas turbines. A phase 2 development of the IGF Code initiated by IMO and its CCC sub-committee is currently allowing the further development of technical provisions for ethyl/ methyl alcohols as fuel and fuel cells. The ship side of the bunkering operation is covered by the IGF-Code, but not the shore part. Therefore, other standards for safe bunkering of the relevant fuels are needed to support the implementation of bunkering technology for maritime use. There are several industry projects underway to test the feasibility of the technology in vessel operation. The HT-PEM technology was demonstrated aboard Viking Line’s cruise ferry »Mariella« in Pa-Xell project with three stacks of 30 kW, and in the project »Vågen«, Norway, including a 12 kW HT-PEM for small port commuter ferry. Pa-X-ell is part of the lighthouse project »e4ships« aiming to reduce emissions on cruise ships, yachts and RoPax-ferries through the integration of a fuel cellbased decentralized energy grid. The main partners are Meyer Erft, Fr. Lürssen, FSG, DNV GL, DLR and SerEnergy. Moreover, cruise line operator Royal Caribbean Cruises and Meyer Turku shipyard will develop the next generation of LNG powered cruise ships with a number of innovations such as an application of fuel cells for power generation. fs HANSA International Maritime Journal – 154. Jahrgang – 2017 – Nr. 3 67

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