500 1,000 beds 400 300 200 100 Schifffahrt | Shipping 0 2000 2001 Fleet capacity and order book 1,000 beds 600 2002 500 400 300 200 100 over more years than the companies on the more saturated English speaking markets. The average age is not considered as a reason for investment; however, exchanges of ships between the brands happen in the group. Royal Caribbean Cruise Line, the largest brand of all, plans a growth of 38% by adding some more of the largest ship (types). RCL still has two ships of the Oasis class and two of the Quantum class on order. In the beginning of 2022 the group will also introduce 5,000 pax giants from Meyer Turku. By extending the deliveries over seven years the annual growth of capacity will be limited. This looks more dramatic in the case of Celebrity (50%), but when a smaller company adds one series of ships to two existing series, this may easily result in a growth of 50%. Norwegian Cruise Line also has 50% more capacity on order with deliveries spread over eight years. Moreover, NCL is heavily engaged in the Chinese market. The order book included three more Breakaway-Plus class vessels for 4,200 pax last year. One of them, the »Norwegian Joy« was delivered during the last twelve months and NCL signed Order book in Order 1,000 book gt in 1,000 gt 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 0 Fleet Capacity and Order Book 2003 2004 2005 2006 Order Book 2007 2008 2009 2010 Fleet 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Order Book 2007 2008 2009 2010 Fleet 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 end '17 38 HANSA International Maritime Journal – 155. Jahrgang – 2018 – Nr. 2 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 end '17 contracts with Fincantieri for four 3,300 pax ships and two options for delivery between 2022 and 2027. Together, it is a huge number of 28,200 new beds, but in fact only one new ship per year. A single further vessel is currently on order for the affiliated brand Regent Seven Seas and none for Oceana. Really breathtaking are the activities of Mediterranean Shipping Cruises (MSC). Having lengthened the four smallest of their twelve existing ships, they have started two series of newbuildings including orders and options. The first of these ships commissioned is the »MSC Meraviglia« with 171,598 gt and 4,500 beds. She will be followed by a sister and two increased units of this class. »MSC Seaside« with 4,140 gt – a type with more open decks and spaces to better enjoy the sunny seas like the Caribbean – was delivered a few months after »MSC Meraviglia« in 2017. The construction of the sister ship »MSC Seaview« had been fixed while a third one remained an option for a long time. At the occasion of »MSC Seaside’s« delivery MSC not only confirmed the option but turned it into a contract for two further 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 vessels with increased size of 169,000 gt, all four to be built at Fincantieri. STX France had further options for a third class of 200,000 gt and 5.500 beds. The maximum capacity of 6,850 is said to be the highest of any cruise ship. Meanwhile, at least two of them are also confirmed. At the end 2017 the MSC fleet amounted up to 40,000 lower beds. The capacity of the eight ships under construction sums up to 40,700 beds and the MSC fleet is already now among the youngest big fleets. The German TUI group fleet shows the highest age and the lowest growth. The three brands are very different: Hapag-Lloyd has two elderly expedition vessels of which one will be replaced by two new ones. TUI Cruises will have the youngest fleet of all in 2019 when the last two newbuildings will replace the two oldest ships. Then all six ships of the brand will have been delivered within the last six years. Marella Cruises – the new name of English TUI subsidiary Thomson Cruises – will give back elder charter vessels and instead get the oldest TUI ships. Also the transfers from Royal Caribbean do not have the age to change the average age positively. Smaller players in the game So far concerning the analysis of the bigger groups. There are also some smaller companies in the newbuilding market, but their growth rates cannot be compared with the other ones because of their small size or lack of history resulting in irrelevant growth rates. Some highlights of these are: • l No big news came from the Genting Group. The first two six stars »Rhine«- class river cruise ships were introduced and two more will follow in 2018. The »Crystal Endeavour« and two sisters with 200 beds/20,000 gt for Crystal Yacht Expeditions are confirmed as well as the first two 200,000 gt giants with 5,000 beds for the Asian brand Star Cruises, all to be built on the East German MV Werften. The 3,360 bed »World Dream« inaugurated in 2017 for the sister brand Dream Cruises came from Papenburg. • l Disney Cruises, currently having four ships with 8,500 beds in operation and two more with 2,500 beds under construction in Papenburg for completion 2021 and 2023, has extended the order book. The third new order could be placed between the two others.
Schifffahrt | Shipping • l The newcomer Virgin Voyages has laid the first keel. The three ships will be for »adults only« and are predicted to have the happiest crews on the oceans. • l Viking Ocean Cruises, sister company to the largest and fast growing river cruise operator, is also becoming the largest small ship ocean cruise operator. The fourth of the 48,000 gt/930 bed ships was completed in 2017. No. 5 and 6 will follow in 2018 and 2019. Now VOC has confirmed the sister vessels seven to ten coming in 2021 to 2023. • l An even smaller small ship operator is the French company Ponant. Adding four 180 pax expedition vessels to an existing series of four 264 beds ships until 2018/19 is already a respectable project, but shortly before Xmas they presented a real surprise: In 2021, a 30,000 gt icebreaking cruiser with 270 beds for Polar cruises will follow. Nothing less than the North Pole will be amongst the new routes. • l The fact that the German river cruise operator nicko Cruises is expanding into expedition cruises with the 200 bed »World Explorer« is hardly worth mentioning. It becomes more interesting if the Portuguese Mystic Invest which already owns Douro Azul and nicko realises the intentions to build four or even ten such ships. • l A similar project was published by SunStone ships, an operator of older expedition ships chartered out to various tour operators. To renew the fleet Niels-Erik Lund ordered four 200 bed units with another six on option. While Norwegian shipyards are normally first choice, SunStone is cooperating with China Merchants Industry. • l The hotel group Ritz-Carlton has signed one order and two options for 24,000 gt/298 bed ships. Shipyard Hijos de J. Barreras in Vigo, Spain, won the order. The operator has no Polar expeditions in mind but wants to offer a yacht experience. Regarding the huge number and wide spectrum of modern ships, the niches for revivals of elder tonnage become rare. Moreover, the availability of ships suitable for modernisation is dwindling. One of the few new developments is the »Prince Vladimir« in the Black Sea. Sovfracht and Rosmorport have indeed opened a new service Sochi–Yalta–Novorossijsk–Sevastopol and Istanbul since the EU has banned cruises in the Northern Black Sea. The ship was bought from Israel. The Mexican hotel group Vidanta has Fleet growth by brands and groups Operator Ships 1,000 beds On order Growth Years Age Carnival 25 66 26.4 40 5 16.6 AIDA 12 25 10.0 40 4 9.3 Costa 15 36 18.4 51 4 13.9 HAL 14 23 2.6 11 1 16.4 P&O 13 26 5.2 20 3 18.1 Princess 17 45 7.0 16 3 13.6 Carnival Group 103 230 73.4 32 - 14.5 RCL 24 76 29.2 38 7 14.4 Celebrity 9 23 11.6 50 5 12.0 RCI Group 39 108 40.8 38 - 15.4 NCL 15 43 21.6 50 8 11.3 Norw. Group 25 50 22.4 45 - 12.6 TUI Group 16 24 6.2 26 2 19.0 MSC 14 40 40.7 102 6 9.6 World 2017 307 525 222.5 42 - 18.9 bought the »Voyager« from the bankrupt All Leisure Group and plans to use her as »Vidanta Alegria« for Latin America cruises. Alteza Cruises of Argentina has chartered the former German »Delphin«. Shipyards Order books January 2018 The list of cruise ship builders is a little bit longer than last year. Mitsubishi was deleted but a few smaller yards were added. The family-owned Meyer yards comprise the Papenburg shipyard, the Turku plant and the Warnemünde factory which contributes engine room blocks for the big vessels. A large investment program increases the building capacity of the then most modern shipyard in Turku. Fincantieri uses five shipyards in Italy. The affiliated VARD group, renowned for offshore vessels, includes besides the five plants in Norway also factories in Romania, Brazil and Vietnam. Following big losses in 2015, Fincantieri reported a small profit in 2016. The Korean STX group is also definitely leaving the cruise ship scene. The sale of the part ownership of STX France to Fincantieri was already reported, but final details are not yet decided. France’s new president Emmanuel Macron is not satisfied with a minority ownership of France in the facility which is important for its naval constructions. Fincantieri is also pampering the Chinese competitors. Following a technical assistance agreement with the repair yard Huarun Dadong and the joint Shipyard Ships 1,000 GT Avg Size Options Customers Meyer + Meyer Turku 20 3,091 154,550 – Carnival etc, (a) Fincantieri 27 2,844 105,340 6 Carnival etc, (b) STX France 11 1,845 167,964 2 MSC, RCL, Celeb. MV Werften 5 477 95,400 1 Genting Waigaoqiao 2 267 133,500 4 Carnival Vard Group 8 110 13,750 – Ponant, Hapag Kleven 2 40 20,000 2 Hurtigruten China Merchants 4 32 8,000 6 SunStone Barreras, Spain 1 24 24,000 2 Ritz-Carlton Uljanik 1 17 17,000 1 Scenic Brodosplit 2 17 8,500 – Oceanwide, Star West Sea, Portugal 1 9 9,000 3 Mystic ASENAV 1 5 5,000 – Minke Ulstein 1 5 5,000 3 Lindblad (a): Disney, RCL, NCL, Saga (b): MSC, NCL, Silversea, Viking, Virgin Source: Hader HANSA International Maritime Journal – 155. Jahrgang – 2018 – Nr. 2 39